Each month the female body undergoes physiological changes that are linked to the menstrual cycle and premenstrual syndrome. Changes hormones, activates receptors in the brain, and changes endometrial layer of the uterus. All this is necessary to ensure that a woman's body was ready for conception and gestation unborn child. As long as the female body undergoes these changes, the reproductive function is preserved. The duration of the menstrual cycle is different in all women, usually cycle lasts 20 - 40 days. However, hormonal changes and symptoms of premenstrual syndrome in all the ladies are almost identical.
When you visit a gynecologist, the doctor always asks about the beginning of the menstrual cycle, and some women are lost in this matter, because do not understand the physiology. To understand this process is easy: the beginning of a new menstrual cycle is the day when the physiological bleeding. From this day you need to keep count, if conducted gynecological calendar. Just gynecologists calculated the approximate gestational age, taking as its starting point the first day of menstrual bleeding premarin contraindications.
The phases of the menstrual cycle differ in several characteristics: duration, hormonal and physiological changes. The main changes exposed endometrium of the uterus, as well as the mucous membrane of the fallopian tubes, cervix and vagina. These changes are due to hormonal dynamics: changes in the concentration of estrogen and progesterone in the bloodstream. To understand the physiology of the menstrual process, you need to know the structure of the uterine endometrium. The endometrium consists of a functional and the basal layer. The functional layer is rejected and there is no menstruation, and basal saved.
Menstrual cycle originates phase, which doctors in gynecology menstrual called. This stage of the cycle is characterized by bleeding from the uterus, and this phase lasts from 4 to 6 days. All women, this process is very individual and depends on it from the physiological characteristics of the organism. Bleeding - is not nothing but a rejection of endometrial layer, its functional parts, with an unfertilized egg. You can meet some of the statements in the literature: "The uterus is weeping for a failed pregnancy." Typically, this phase is accompanied by pain in the abdomen and in the lumbar region.
The first bleeding in girls begins upon reaching the age of 11 - 13 years. The process of science is called menarche. The first bleeding may be scarce (spotting) or abundant. Scarce allocation occur more frequently.
The next is the follicular or proliferative phase - it is the decisive phase for a possible conception. its duration is typically 14 days, and it is characterized by the development of follicles in which the maturation of the oocyte (egg cell) occurs. Ends proliferative phase ovulation. Some scientists have called the follicular phase of the preparatory stage for pregnancy. Also, at this stage, due to the action of estradiol, which in the age of reproduction is considered the main estrogen made the process of dividing the cellular elements of the basal layer of the endometrium of the uterus, and the restoration of its functional parts. Basal body temperature is in the normal processing.
Recovery is due to endometrial epithelial cells in the glands that form the basis of the basal layer of the uterus. When the proliferative phase of the cellular elements come to the surface, divided to form more and more cells that form the basis of a new epithelial lining of the endometrium. The walls of the uterus are inhabited by new glands in them grows more and more vessels, provided the spiral arteries. These elements are necessary for the normal functioning of metabolic processes. Follicular phase, which otherwise is called proliferative, characterized by the following clinical signs: increases in size and sore breasts. There are copious clear discharge from the vagina. There is a growing concentration of estrogen, which gives the quality of cervical fluid, contributing to an easier penetration of sperm.
With the onset of ovulation, menstruation becomes ovulatory phase which lasts on average 3 days. Ovulation is characterized by the release of an egg from the gonads. release of an egg occurs after the follicle completely finish the ripening process. Once this process is complete, an opening is formed in the follicle - the gap. Through it, the egg and leaves, and then migrates to the fallopian tube, and within 24 hours of trying to "absorb" the sperm. Why day? Because such is the life of the mature ovum, if at this time it is not fertilized, there is her death.
Growth and maturation of the follicle takes place through the action of FSH. It is found that the period covering five days before ovulation and after 2 days, a favorable time for conception. In the normal menstrual cycle in women ovulation occurs on the fourteenth day. The egg is released from the mature follicle rapidly, usually it is enough to 120 minutes.
Objectively, the female body is not able to feel this process. Modern medicine has a number of methods to determine the duration of the ovulatory phase. As mentioned earlier, this process lasts on average about three days, but it depends on the duration of a complete menstrual cycle. To determine ovulation using the following methods:
Diagnostic methods for fixing the level of luteinizing hormone in the bloodstream.
The ultrasonic diagnostic method for studying the female gonads (ovaries), with the contained follicles (follikulometriya).
luteinizing hormone level can be determined, and the house, examining the urine using the test on ovulation.
Furthermore, if the calendar is conducted menstruation, ovulation can be determined by measuring the basal temperature (the most inaccurate method because the temperature level depends on many factors).
Ovulatory phase is controlled by a special department of the brain - the hypothalamus, which in turn regulates the pituitary gland. The pituitary gland into the bloodstream delivers gonadotropic hormones (FSH and LNG). Until last follicular phase, the follicle increases its size. The growth of this structure is in direct proportion to the follicle-stimulating hormone. When the follicle is close to the extreme point of maturation, its diameter becomes equal to 2 cm. However, the follicle is not empty, it matures inside the egg. Oocyte maturation is effected by luteinizing hormone impetus for products which are estrogen. Their synthesis is engaged in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland.
After maturing follicle is completely finished, the gap is formed in its wall. After it is released, and the mature egg and stir it through fallopian tubes to the uterus. egg fertilization occurs in the fallopian tubes and only after that it arrives in the uterus already in the form of a zygote, and after five days, is implanted in the wall. If the egg after being hit in the fallopian tube is not fertilized within 24 hours, then there is her death.
Luteal phase lasts from ovulation until the onset of menstruation. On average, it covers a time period of 12 - 16 days. In this phase accumulation follicle luteinizing hormone and follicle itself converted into corpus luteum.
Since then, as the corpus luteum is formed, increasing production of progesterone and estrogen. At the same time the uterus becomes ready to accept a fertilized egg. To pregnancy proceeded without negative consequences, yellow body production of progesterone comes to bookmark and formation of the placenta. After the formation of the placenta function of progesterone production falls on it. If the menstrual cycle does not terminate the pregnancy, then the level of this hormone begins to decline gradually narrows the lumen of spiral arteries that nourish the endothelium. All this ends ischemia (lack of oxygen), characterized by a rejection of the functional layer of endothelium and bleeding from the uterus. a new cycle begins from now on.
Diagnose the development of the luteal phase is possible by measuring the basal temperature. In this case, it must be equal to 37 ° C or more. Woman with menstrual cycle in the luteal phase is experiencing lethargy and drowsiness. She appetite increases dramatically. The mood becomes stable, the woman may be upset because of trifles, may no reason to cry or laugh. Showing increasing symptoms of premenstrual syndrome. Normally, they have a mild course, but in the pathology - amplified to moderate and severe.
Insufficient luteal phase can be characterized by a number of pathological processes:
After a traumatic injury and burnout can disrupt the hypothalamic-pituitary system.
Can disrupt the receptor apparatus of the endometrial layer of the uterus. This may contribute to spikes in the uterus after abortion or miscarriage or infectious inflammations.
Violated the metabolic processes in the female body.
Insufficient intake of blood, rich in oxygen and necessary nutrients to the yellow body.
Peritoneal fluid gets disturbed biochemical parameters.
Many of the fair sex are calendar menstrual cycle to calculate the safe days and use these calculations as a contraceptive. However, this method is not exact, as different causal factors may disrupt the cycle. It may increase or decrease. In this case, the shifting boundary phases of ovulation, and other changes gametes vital functions, all this can lead to unwanted pregnancies.
Watching the regularity of the menstrual cycle can be concluded about the general state of health. An irregular cycle can talk about problems with the endocrine system or underweight. The calendar can only push on the idea of pathology. The real cause can be set only after the necessary specialist studies. When women develop menstrual bleeding, it speaks about the development of menopause. After menopause, the reproductive function of women becomes possible.
Calendar menstrual cycle, some women use sex to child planning. However, this approach has not found to date scientific evidence.
Also, the monthly calendar helps to calculate the date of birth. This is done as follows: pregnancy lasts 280 lunar day, add to this number the estimated date of conception, and thus calculate the approximate date of birth. To establish the date of birth, you can also use the formula Negele. Its essence is as follows: take the first day of the last menstruation wean him 3 months and added 7 days. The resulting number is the expected delivery date. This formula can not give accurate information if a woman menstrual cycle is not regular.
The entry of women into the phase of puberty and the beginning of the first menstrual period, every woman is experiencing its own way, but there is something that unites all of the fair sex. Most girls experience the uncertainty and instability, because the usual children's crumbling way of life, and the future frightens his uncertainty. Moreover, under the influence of the hormones estradiol in the body wake adolescence and reconfigured many systems and functions. Feelings, emotions, feelings - everything is new and the unknown, the mysterious and misty. transformed not only physiological parameters With the advent of the first menstrual period in a woman's body, but also soul. Young body forever bound by invisible threads with Mother Nature, in response to its call for the monthly lunar, and this is the clearest predestination main mission of women - to create a new life. Passing through the line of sexual maturation, many women enter the unstable state - ranging from depression and obsessive ending unjustified hyperactivity. Sometimes the pendulum swings too quickly and easily, making the children's personality their adjustments - yesterday obedient, exemplary girl becomes closed and sullen, and tomboy and bully turns into purposeful charismatic leader. But few people think that this is the age a woman goes through a kind of natural initiation.