Viral encephalitis is an acute inflammation of the brain of an infectious origin, which is accompanied by damage to the meninges, spinal cord and peripheral nerves.
The disease is caused by the direct action of the pathogen or an inflammatory reaction that develops in response to the introduction of the virus into the body.
The viruses include: herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2, Herpes zoster virus Epstein-Barr virus, influenza virus, enteroviruses, adenoviruses, mumps virus, cytomegalovirus, rubella and measles virus, Dengue virus, tick-borne encephalitis virus, virus Rabies, arboviruses, the California encephalitis virus buy doxycycline online, the Murray Valley encephalitis virus, and the Japanese encephalitis virus B.
The reservoir and carrier of the pathogen are sick people, arthropods. An additional reservoir of transmissible infections are animals and birds.
A person becomes infected with airborne, fecal-oral, contact, genital ways, transmissively or by eating contaminated milk.
Initially, the disease can manifest as nonspecific symptoms (worsening of health, fever, runny nose). Then there is a headache, nausea, vomiting, photophobia, convulsions, mental disorders, focal neurological symptoms.
The disease can progress as lightning, and slowly. The involvement of the meninges manifests itself in symptoms such as headache, meningeal symptoms. With intrauterine infection, other organs are often involved.
Symptoms of viral encephalitis depend on the etiology. Typical symptoms of varicella encephalitis: shaky gait, trembling of the head, frequent involuntary vibrational movements of the eyes, chanted speech, intentional tremor, difficulty of coordination of movements. Symptoms can be one- or two-sided. In tick-borne, epidemic encephalitis and HSV-1 lesions, cranial nerves are often involved.
In children, the clinical symptoms of arbovirus encephalitis are more pronounced than in adults.
The diagnosis is determined by the results of microbiological studies:
Detection and identification of the pathogen
Confirming the presence of the virus through serological tests
For diagnosis, CSF analysis using a polymerase chain reaction in vitro is also used.
On the development of the pathological process, primary and secondary encephalitis is isolated. Epidemiologically, the main groups of viral encephalitis are:
Encephalitis transmitted by arthropods. These include tick-borne encephalitis (tick-borne encephalitis, Scottish encephalitis);
Mosquito encephalitis (Japanese encephalitis, San Luis, American encephalitis, American equine encephalitis, Australian encephalitis, West Nile encephalitis).
Encephalitis transmitted by airborne droplets. These include the epidemic encephalitis of Ekonomo.
Encephalitis with unexplained epidemiology. These include Vilius encephalitis and chorioencephalitis.
Encephalitis, the pathogens of which are transmitted through ticks and mosquitoes, are combined into a group of transmissible arbovirus encephalitis.
When symptoms of viral encephalitis appear, the patient needs urgent medical help, it is necessary to call an ambulance.
In case of untimely or inferior treatment, the following complications are possible:
Memory and speech impairment
Change of personality
As measures to prevent viral encephalitis, it is recommended to prohibit the import of animals from disadvantaged countries, to conduct disinfestations in areas of natural reproduction of pathogens. When found in areas of natural foci of spreading the pathogen, use repellents.
It is advisable to consume milk of goats and other animals only after boiling.
During the stay in natural foci of the disease, forest workers need to use protective clothing treated with insecticides or insect repellent substances. People who are at risk of infection are recommended to be vaccinated.