Pleurisy is a disease of the respiratory system characterized by inflammation of the pleura.
Pleura consists of two sheets (internal and external), between which there is a pleural cavity. Under the influence of various factors, blood plasma begins to seep into the pleural cavity. At the same time, if the volume of the liquid is small, then the plasma is absorbed back, except fibrin, which remains on the pleura sheets, causing roughness and thickening buy ventolin online. This is how dry pleurisy develops. If the volume of the liquid is large, then it is formed exudate (exudative pleurisy).
Infectious pleurisy develop due to infection by pathogenic microorganisms (viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa). In the pleural cavity, the infection can penetrate from the foci of infection in the pulmonary cavity, the flow of blood from other foci, as well as by direct infection of the pleura with injuries of the chest.
Non-infectious (aseptic) pleurisies can arise for various reasons. These can be lung tumors, rheumatological diseases, chest injuries, lung infarction, acute forms of pancreatitis, myocardial infarction, chronic renal failure and other disorders.
The leading symptom in pleurisy is pain in the chest in the area of the lesion. With a deep breath and with a cough, the intensity of pain increases.
Gradually, as the fluid accumulates in the pleural cavity, the pain subsides. The patient has a heaviness in the chest and shortness of breath. When a significant amount of fluid accumulates, the skin becomes cyanotic.
Of the general symptoms for pleurisy is characterized by an increase in temperature to high values, general weakness, headache, rapid and shallow breathing and lack of appetite.
Diagnosis of pleurisy begins with the collection of anamnesis and general examination of the patient. Laboratory diagnosis of the disease includes the conduct of general and biochemical blood tests, which helps to identify signs of inflammation in the body. Instrumental diagnosis of pleurisy includes the following studies:
Ultrasound examination of the pleural cavity;
Puncture of the pleural cavity with selection of a portion of exudate for further laboratory studies;
Thoracoscopy - visualization of the pleural cavity, which is performed using a toratoscope.
Depending on the reason, pleurisy are infectious and aseptic. By the nature of the pathological process, dry and exudative pleurisy is distinguished. On the localization of the pathological process pleurisy is diffuse (located on the entire pleural cavity) and local, in which a limited area of the pleural cavity is affected.
The presence of at least some of the above symptoms is an occasion for immediate medical attention.
First of all, the main disease is treated, which was complicated by pleurisy.
With infectious pleurisy, the basis of treatment is antibiotic therapy and antimicrobial drugs from the group of fluoroquinolones (cyprin, etc.). In the presence of severe pain syndrome, anesthetics are also prescribed. An important link in the treatment of pleurisy are detoxification preparations, the action of which is aimed at binding and excretion of toxic substances.
If a large amount of fluid accumulates in the pleural cavity, a pleural puncture is performed-a pleural puncture that removes the exudate, and rinses the cavity with antiseptics and the subsequent administration of antibiotics.
In chronic purulent pleurisy, a surgical operation to remove the altered areas of the pleura can be indicated.
In some cases, pleural effusion can be complicated by respiratory failure. Also pleurisy (dry and effusive) can lead to the formation of adhesions between pleural sheets.
The most serious complications occur with purulent pleurisy. In this case, the disease can go into a chronic form. In some cases, pus can break into the lungs and form a fistula. Purulent pleurisy can also lead to sepsis - the formation of purulent foci in various organs.
Prophylaxis of pleurisy is reduced to early diagnosis and timely treatment of diseases that can lead to inflammation of the pleural cavity. These diseases include diseases of the lungs, kidneys, heart and connective tissue.