Female infertility - a woman's inability to conceive a child. About female infertility is said, if during the year of active sexual life without the use of contraceptives a woman can not become pregnant (provided that her partner does not have problems with men's health).
There are the following types of female infertility: infertility primary - complete absence of pregnancy in the life of a woman with a regular sexual life without contraceptives; Infertility secondary - the presence in the past of pregnancy, but its absence at the moment after 12 months of regular sexual life without contraceptives; Infertility is absolute - the fundamental impossibility of becoming pregnant, for example, due to the absence of ovaries, uterus, and other anomalies of female genital organs. buy clomid online
The main cause of female infertility is associated with a violation of ovulation, that is, maturation of the egg. As a rule, these disorders are associated with the inappropriate production of hormones that control the development of the oocyte. In some cases, this is the result of damage to the ovaries (for example, in the ovarian cyst).
Second place in the spread frequency is occupied by defects in the fallopian tubes (30% of cases). Fallopian tubes can be plugged or damaged. The cause of this may be spikes, which occur after surgery in the abdominal cavity, ectopic pregnancies, abortions, inflammation of the appendages, endometritis. The egg meets the spermatozoon in the fallopian tube, and if the tube is blocked, the fertilization process can not occur.
Another cause of female infertility are problems with the cervical canal. Normally, it should be completely filled with the mucus needed to move the sperm along the cervix to the egg. And if the mucus is small, it is too viscous or has a broken chemical composition, it will be difficult for spermatozoa to get to the uterus. Typically, this problem is associated with the presence of a woman's sexual infections, changes in the activity of the mucus glands, inflammation and erosion of the cervix.
Another cause of infertility in women is the immunological problems associated with the appearance in the cervical mucus substances that are capable of damaging or destroying spermatozoa.
Female infertility can also be caused by various defects of the uterus: inflammation, malformations, tumors and tumorous formations. Infertility can lead to endometriosis (40-50% of cases), diseases that are not directly related to the reproductive system (diabetes, adrenal, thyroid, and others).
In addition, every woman should understand that the probability of conceiving a child decreases with age. Negative influence on the reproductive function may be the abuse of alcohol, smoking, stress, bad ecology, malnutrition.
The choice of the method for diagnosing female infertility depends on the alleged causes that caused it. To diagnose problems in the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian system, all clinical and laboratory methods, biochemical studies of urine, blood, and a radiograph of the skull are used. The value also represents the results of measuring the basal temperature.
In addition, an endometrial biopsy is used, which makes it possible to establish the functionality of the endometrium. Ultrasonic scanning of thickness of endometrium and growth of follicles during the menstrual cycle is performed. Laparoscopic examination is also used.
For the diagnosis of female infertility associated with various gynecological diseases, a woman should be observed for a long time at the gynecologist who conducts a test for functional diagnostics tests, determines the level of progesterone, with the help of hysteroscopy specifies the nature and location of synechia, reveals the presence of intrauterine fusion and thinning.
To diagnose the immune factor of infertility, a postcoital test is used for this. Particularly difficult to diagnose is tubal infertility. For this purpose, the woman's anamnesis is carefully studied, bacteriological methods of research are used, colposcopy, hysterosalpingography, kymographic perturbation, roentgenography, laparoscopy, radioisotope scanning, microtubes of the fallopian tubes.
Treatment of female infertility, which is caused by endocrine disorders, is performed depending on the localization and nature of the pathology. When phenomena of infantilism and hypothalamic-pituitary insufficiency are used hormone therapy.
Women who have hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction, treatment is prescribed depending on the level of certain hormones. With a high level of prolactin before hormonal therapy, the production of prolactin is reduced and against this background, the stimulation of ovulation is performed, which allows a woman to become pregnant. In order to stimulate ovulation, physiotherapeutic methods are also used, such as cervico-facial ionogalvanization with vitamins B6 and E, endonasal electrophoresis, ultrasound, electrostimulation of the cervix, and others.
With insufficient function of the ovaries, cyclic therapy with sex hormones is performed. If the effect is absent, then operative treatment with subsequent hormonotherapy is used. With endocrine infertility, along with traditional methods of treatment phytotherapeutic methods are also used. With hormonal infertility, the effect of the treatment increases mud cure, carbonic baths, gymnastic exercises that contribute to the improvement of blood circulation in the female genital organs.
For the treatment of female infertility associated with gynecological diseases, the adhesions in the uterus are destroyed immediately after the next monthly period and cyclic hormone therapy is used for several cycles. In immunological infertility, therapy is carried out to correct the immune status, the purpose of which is to reduce the production of the woman's body antibodies to male sperm. In addition, antibiotic therapy is prescribed to reduce the number of antisperm antibodies that occur with dormant infection of the female reproductive tract. Non-drug therapy for immunological infertility is the mechanical method of contraception for 6 months to exclude the contact of antigen and female genital organs.
In addition, in such situations, intrauterine fertilization is used to treat female infertility, when male semen is injected directly into the uterus to exclude sperm from cervical mucus. Treatment of tubal infertility begins with conservative therapy: sedative, spasmolytic, anti-inflammatory, correction of hormonal disorders, antibiotic therapy, psychotherapy, physiotherapy. If after this there is no improvement, then surgical methods or the method of in vitro fertilization are used.