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Basic hormones of the thyroid gland and their indicators

Thyroid hormones occupy one of the most important places in the system of vital functions of human organs. Since everything in our body is interconnected and has its meaning, hormones are subordinated to the brain region called the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. The hypothalamus controls the functioning of the neuro-endocrine system, and the pituitary gland works on producing hormones.

All this large system sends out impulses from one instance to another and reacts to hormone levels. For example, with a reduced number of those before the hypothalamus, impulses come to the problem, after which the brain region through liberins sends off an impulse to the pituitary gland to urgently produce hormones, which in turn activates the production of hormones by the thyroid gland buy synthroid online. And, conversely, if the amount is too high, the pituitary gland sends the inhibitory signal to the coordination center via statins.

Anatomical features

Unnoticed for many iron plays an important role in the functioning of the entire body. The thyroid gland in the international description is called "thyroid", the one that has the form of a shield. It is located on the neck below the Adam's apple and develops in the form of a butterfly. If to consider in detail, the thyroid gland is divided into 3 parts: isthmus and two lobes, which are located on the sides.

The iron can move freely: to rise or fall on the larynx, to shift aside. Its size is affected by a large number of factors: climate, human age, the effect of drugs, diet and pregnancy. A large number of small follicles, of which it consists, contains inside a thick liquid - a colloid. At the edges of each bubble are placed cells-thyrocytes, which synthesize the hormones of the thyroid gland. Then the hormones remain in this liquid until the right moment, when it will be necessary to replenish blood reserves.

In order that calcium is not washed out of human bones, the thyroid gland through special C-cells conduct calcitonin production. This hormone is an active participant in the metabolism of phosphorus and calcium. It is he who is responsible for limiting the excretion of calcium from the bones and getting it into the blood.

Yodthyronines are responsible for heat exchange and oxygen saturation of body tissues, which in turn keeps the respiratory system functioning at the required level. Also these hormones regulate the work of the heart muscle and intestinal motility, take an active part in the production of red blood cells. Yodthyronines are vital for every human body, because they are the impetus for the development of tissues and organs, their growth.

The main assistants of the body T3 and T4s

The main thyroid hormones are triiodothyronine and tetraiodothyronine, T3 and T4, respectively. Between each other they are connected, because when T4 enters the tissues and cells, it gradually turns into T3. The last hormone is the most active and biologically important. It is he who manages the metabolism. Formation and transportation of T3 and T4 is impossible without a specific protein of thyroglobulin, which is a reserve hormone and is located inside the follicle in the colloid.

Lodine plays an important role in the formation of hormones, because without it and the amino acid of tyrosine, the synthesis of hormones ceases. For this reason, all physicians recommend eating foods rich in iodine. In the blood, thyroid hormones get through special transport proteins, otherwise the kidneys will be washed out of the body. This is due to the fact that the hormones are very light and can not move independently.

Norm and various deviations

The norm for the organism is 1.2-4.2 pkmol / l of free hormone T3, that is, one that is not associated with carrier proteins. For another hormone T4, the total level is 60-120 nmol / l, and the free level is 10-25 pmol / l.

These are only the main parameters. In addition, doctors assess the amount of thyroglobulin and antibodies to it, TSH, TSG and the ratio of the hormone T4 to thyroxine-binding globulin.

If the level of thyroid hormones in the body is insufficient, a person may develop hypothyroidism. Such a disease develops due to inadequate intake of iodine or the passage of substances that disrupt the formation of hormones. Such a condition in a person is caused by the use of certain medications (cordarone) or a deficiency in the formation of TSH. In children, such a disease is fraught with the formation of cretinism, it leads to a slowdown in growth or disproportionate development of the child.

A person suffering from a lack of hormones will complain of general weakness, rapid fatigue and a low temperature (up to 35.6 ° C). Such patients gain weight and can not lose weight by either fasting or dieting, or by physical exertion. The skin of the patients becomes dry and swollen, itching appears. Often worried about dandruff, from which it is impossible to get rid of even with the help of medical products.

Patients complain of constant swelling of the lower limbs, pain in the muscles and joints. Patients suffer from constipation, slowed reactions and memory impairment. Often they have low blood pressure and they almost never get warm. In the female half, the disease manifests itself in the form of an impaired cycle of menstruation and infertility. With a low level of iodine, people suffer from endemic goiter.

If the thyroid gland secretes an excessive amount of hormones, while increasing in size, a person suffers from hyperthyroidism. The common signs of the disease include the same fatigue and a slow reaction to what is happening, dryness and flabbiness of the skin. Women have the same signs as with a lowered level of iodine. But the other symptoms are the opposite: elevated temperature and pressure, excitability, weight loss and a constant sense of heat.

When an assay is administered

To diagnose disorders in the thyroid gland, hormone tests are performed. This definition of the problem may indicate the presence of hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism in the early stages of development. To do this, the patient will take blood from the vein and sent to the study.

The attending physician will prescribe a diagnosis for those patients who have a risk of developing the disease or have strong suspicions. In addition to these factors, patients who have goiter or have cardiac arrhythmias are sent for analysis. Women usually suspect suspicion of infertility and a broken menstrual cycle, while in men the main symptoms are decreased impotence and alopecia. Small patients are sent for research if they have mental retardation or stunted growth.

Particular attention is paid to women who are preparing to become mothers, because their thyroid gland is working in a strengthened mode: for mother and her child. If elevated TSH during pregnancy, this is not necessarily a sign of disruption of the thyroid gland. Such an indicator in this position is considered the norm, but nevertheless consultation of the endocrinologist does not interfere.