Impetigo is an extremely contagious infectious disease that affects the skin, the causative agent of which is the bacteria of the family of staphylococci and streptococci.
Most often this disease affects children of preschool and primary school age. Epidemics impetigo are observed, mainly in kindergartens or in individual families. Outbreaks of this disease are subjected to a thorough investigation to establish the primary source of infection, since this ailment can be very dangerous for its complications, especially in childhood.
Causes. In most cases, the causative agent of impetigo is beta-hemolytic streptococcus or Staphylococcus aureus. Bacteria, as a rule, enter the body through a small wound on the skin or through the mouth of the hair follicle what is fluconazole. Often impetigo acts as a complication of another disease, for example, neurodermatitis. Among the risk factors for developing impetigo as a primary disease, there is a large number of microtraumas of the skin, non-compliance with personal hygiene, weakening of the body against hypovitaminosis or anemia, as well as special weather conditions (humid, subtropical climate).
Symptoms of impetigo. The first manifestations of impetigo are red spots on the skin, mostly on the face (in the mouth, nose and behind the ears). At the next stage of the disease, these spots are transformed into small bubbles (flickenes) filled with a turbid liquid. The diameter of the vesicles varies and is usually about 0.5 cm. Soon these bubbles burst and on the site of the lesion crimson ulcers are formed, which eventually become crusted. A frequent manifestation of impetigo in children is the so-called streptococcal congestion (erosive ulcer in the corner of the mouth). The greatest concentration of fliken is usually observed on the face, however, due to very rapid self-infection, the disease promptly affects large areas of the skin throughout the body.
Diagnostics. Diagnosis of this disease, as a rule, is conducted by a dermatologist. The diagnosis of impetigo can be exposed on the basis of a characteristic clinic of the disease and the conclusion of dermatoscopy. Of course, to establish the etiology of the disease and identify the pathogen should be more thorough diagnosis (take a bacterial culture). Differential diagnosis is usually performed with seborrheic eczema.
Classification. Depending on the causative agent of the disease, streptococcal, staphylococcal and mixed types of impetigo are isolated. In addition to the pathogen, they also differ in the localization of the fliken. In addition to the classical manifestation, streptococcal impetigo has three varieties:
Superficial panaritium - localization of the fliken on the nail roller (with trauma of the hangnails); Simple lichen - pyoderma, skin peeling; Streptococcal congestion - localization of flies in the corners of the mouth. Staphylococcal impetigo manifests itself in the form of folliculitis, in which the abscesses are formed from an inflamed follicle. It is superficial or deep.
Also there are mixed forms of the disease. Strep-staphylococcal impetigo, also called vulgar impetigo, is characterized by a large number of flies with purulent contents.
The patient's actions. If a symptom similar to the above is found, it is recommended to consult a dermatologist immediately. Do not resort to self-treatment, not being convinced of the diagnosis and etiology of the disease.
Treatment of impetigo is usually performed on an outpatient basis. Some of the most prominent flicks are surgically processed and treated with aniline dyes or fucorcin. It is also recommended to lubricate the affected skin with disinfectant ointments (for example, heliomycin or erythromycin). It is not recommended to apply ointment under the bandage. Usually the course of treatment lasts at least 10 days. In addition, after the onset of a positive therapeutic effect and elimination of all symptoms, it is recommended to continue regular skin treatment with disinfectants (eg, alcohol) in order to prevent relapse. In the most severe forms of impetigo, oral antibiotics can be prescribed.
Also, remember that throughout the course of treatment should not be watered the area of the affected skin.
Complications. As a rule, impetigo is well amenable to therapy if treatment is done carefully, and does not lead to complications. However, the probability of complications is still there. The most dangerous of the possible consequences of the disease may be myocarditis and nephritis. In addition, the complication of impetigo may be the development of abscesses and phlegmon.
Prevention of impetigo. The main method of preventing impetigo, of course, is to observe personal hygiene. It is also important to maintain proper sanitary conditions in children's institutions (kindergartens, schools). An important element in the prevention of the epidemic of impetigo is the timely isolation of the patient, since impetigo is a very contagious disease.